Structured cabling is the design and installation of a cabling system that will support multiple hardware uses and be suitable for today’s needs and those of the future. With a correctly installed system, current and future requirements can be met, and hardware that is added in the future will be supported 
Structured cabling design and installation is governed by a set of standards that specify wiring data centers, offices, and apartment buildings for data or voice communications using various kinds of cable, most commonly category 5e (Cat 5e), category 6 (Cat 6), and fiber optic cabling and modular connectors. These standards define how to lay the cabling in various topologies in order to meet the needs of the customer, typically using a central patch panel (which is normally 19-inch rack-mounted), from where each modular connection can be used as needed. Each outlet is then patched into a network switch (normally also rack-mounted) for network use or into an IP or PBX (private branch exchange) telephone system patch panel.
Lines patched as data ports into a network switch require simple straight-through patch cables at each end to connect a computer. Voice patches to PBXs in most countries require an adapter at the remote end to translate the configuration on 8P8C modular connectors into the local standard telephone wall socket. No adapter is needed in North America as the 6P2C and 6P4C plugs most commonly used with RJ11and RJ14 telephone connections are physically and electrically compatible with the larger 8P8C socket.[a] RJ25 and RJ61 connections are physically but not electrically compatible, and cannot be used. In the United Kingdom, an adapter must be present at the remote end as the 6-pin BT socket is physically incompatible with 8P8C.
FTTH or Fiber To the Home, is the physical fiber network installed between central point directly to individual household. FTTH is one of the methodology of deployment of fiber optical network.
PON: Passive Optical Network
Passive Optical Networks (PON) provide high-speed, high-bandwidth and secure voice, video and data service delivery over a combined fiber network. The main benefits of PON are listed below:
- Lower network operational costs
- Elimination of Ethernet switches in the network
- Elimination of recurring costs associated with a fabric of Ethernet switches in the network
- Lower installation (CapEx) costs for a new or upgraded network (min 200 users)
- Lower network energy (OpEx) costs
- Less network infrastructure
- Ability to reclaim wiring closet (IDF) real estate
- Large bundles of copper cable are replaced with small single mode optical fiber cable
- PON provides increased distance between data center and desktop (>20 kilometers)
- Network maintenance is easier and less expensive
GPON: It stands for Gigabyte passive optical Network. It is a point-to-multipoint access network technology. It uses passive splitters in the fiber distribution network, which enabling one single feeding fiber from the provider to serve multiple homes and small businesses.
Advantages of GPON Networks
The most obvious advantage of PON networks is that a single shared optical fiber can support multiple users using inexpensive passive optical splitters. In GPON networks, up to 64 ONTs can share one fiber connection to the OLT. This makes GPON an attractive option for service providers wanting to replace copper networks with fiber, particularly in high-density urban areas.